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Try out PMC Labs and tell us what you think. Learn More. Recently it has been shown that body image during sexual activities is a better predictor of the diversity of sexual experience than body image as a psychological trait. The original model was first translated into Polish and consulted to create the version to be further validated. The original model was tested using confirmatory factor analysis CFA. The population was divided in two equal groups — group 1 was used for exploratory factor analysis.
Discriminant and convergent validity were checked. Sexual function was assessed by the Changes in Sexual Function Questionnaire. Face was the most important for self-consciousness during sexual contact in the population of Polish women. State body image correlates with sexual functions but is not a major factor influencing sexual performance. Women in Poland are not anxious about body exposure during sexual activity. It has cognitive, behavioral and emotional dimensions. In contrast, contextual body image refers to how individuals perceive their body parts during specific situations such as sexual activities.
Recently it has been shown that body image during sexual activities is a better predictor of sexual experiences than train body image. To be more precise, women who avoid exposing their bodies during sexual encounters are less satisfied with the relationship, more dissatisfied with their sexual function, less self-confident to refuse sex, less sexually assertive, have more difficulties in making a sexual decision and are less emotionally engaged in the romantic relationship [ 9 ].
In that context, women who are dissatisfied with their bodies during sex tend to tell partner about their sexual expectations less frequently and less frequently experience arousal, orgasm and sexual satisfaction during sexual activities [ 9 ]. In modern societies social scripts force individuals, especially women, to meet a strict requirement of beauty.
For women physical attractiveness is believed to be a sexual cue for male partners to engage in sexual relationship [ 12 ]. That may lead to avoidance of sexual body part exposure during intimate encounters with a sexual partner and further sexual dissatisfaction, distress and dysfunction. It is believed that body image as a state influences not only sexual life but also general well-being [ 11 ].
This items scale assesses the level of self-consciousness and avoidance to show body parts during sexual encounters. As it has been shown that improving contextual body image by deed therapies or even repeated self-assessment of the body in daily life may improve sexual function within the relationship [ 913 ], there is a need for validation and cultural adaptation of a scale assessing body image as BESAQ. It is especially important as up until now the scale has been validated only in the United Stated of America USA [ 1 ] and, partly, in Turkey [ 14 ].
We believe that the of the original validation will be confirmed, giving a stronger basis for further validation in other European countries and, as a result, facilitating sexual therapy for couples with sexual dysfunctions. It has been shown that improving contextual body image by deed therapies or even repeated self-assessment of body in daily life Casual encounters Poland improve Casual encounters Poland functions within the relationship [ 913 ]. The study aimed to: perform the linguistic validation of BESAQ-PL, investigate the psychometric properties of BESAQ-PL, assess the level of avoidance of body exposure during sexual activity in the population of Polish women aged years old and factors affecting that body image, and evaluate which part of the female body physical foci are the most important for self-consciousness during sex.
The questionnaire was available online as well as paper-pencil versions. Out of eligible respondents, 51 did not agree to participate in the study and returned incomplete questionnaires. Finally, were qualified for the analysis with paper-pencil version and online one. Out of that a sample of 75 women participated in the retest study and completed the questionnaire for the second time after 4 weeks. The response rate was The minimal required sample size of to perform confirmatory factorial analysis CFA was calculated using the Monte Carlo approach [ 15 ]. The mean age of the studied individuals was The inclusion criteria were age between 18 and 55 years and agreement for participation in the study.
All respondents were asked to fill out the questionnaire on day 0 and then in the period between 2 and 8 weeks later. To identify the subjects in the re-test procedure, all respondents were asked to enter an anonymous and unique identification code when completing the questionnaire the first time and after weeks.
The study was based on a questionnaire containing standard socioeconomical questions, medical history and sexual behaviors questions. All participants were asked to state their weight and height for BMI calculation. For Casual encounters Poland sexual dysfunction FSD the DMS-5 criteria [ 17 ] were used — the diagnosis was based on5 questions concerning presence of sexual problems and concomitant distress according to DSM-5 recommendations. Risky sexual behaviors RSB were defined as one of the following: sexual contacts with more than one sexual partner at the same time, getting engaged in sexual activity with a casual person one-night standfrequent change of sexual partners, having intercourse with a person living with HIV, inconsistent use of condoms in oral, anal and vaginal contacts, prostitution and using the services of an escort agency, sexual contacts under the influence of psychoactive substances other than alcohol and marihuana chemsex and drug injection with shared needles within the last 6 months [ 16 ].
This items scale consists of two domains: self-evaluative salience and motivational salience. Total composite score is also calculated. A Polish version of the scale is currently being developed. The scale consists of 35 items rating the degree of self-consciousness and satisfaction on a 5-point Likert scale. There are three domains of BES: sexual attractiveness, weight control and physical condition. Higher scores reflect more positive attitudes and higher level of self-consciousness and satisfaction.
The adjectives are grouped in four factors: factor 1 romantic including 8 items, factor 2 passionate — 7 items, factor 3 direct — 4 items and factor 4 embarrassed — 5 items. Three positive factors romantic, passionate and direct constitute the positive schema, whereas the negative factor embarrassed constitutes the negative schema. Furthermore, four types of self-schemas were distinguished: positive schematic high positive and low negative schema scoresnegative schematic high negative and low positive schema scoresco-schematic both high scores and aschematic both low scores [ 16 ].
Sexual problems were evaluated by the Changes in Sexual Function Questionnaire [ 16 ]. The scale consists of 14 questions assessing sexual experiences on a 5-point Likert scale. These 5-point scales include those concerning frequency of experiences from never to everyday or degree of enjoyment from no pleasure to the greatest one. The scale has been used in a few studies in Poland and its validation is currently in progress [ 16 ]. In the first step a translation procedure of the original scale was introduced. The permission to use and translate the scale as well as the original version was obtained from Cash [ 21 ].
The linguistic validation was executed, according to the five-stage test adaptation procedure recommended by Beaton et al. The following steps were executed: forward translation, discrepancy resolution, backward translation, expert committee review, and pilot study. The first step was performed independently by the trained, professional bilingual translator uninformed and the first author of this study informed translator.
It included the questionnaire instructions, items and the response options. When the two translations were being compared discrepancy resolution by the authors of this paper, some discrepancies were reported in items 14, 15, 26 and The back-translation was then performed by two independent bilingual translators for whom the first language was English. In the next step, a committee consisting of all three authors of this study, who are experienced in validation studies, reviewed the translation and finally obtained the BESAQ-PL.
Finally, in the pilot study, the questionnaire was distributed among 25 female students from Medical School in Opole, Poland, in order to test its clarity, appropriateness, intelligibility and cultural relevance. Then students were interviewed to identify any difficulties in understanding or interpreting questions. The Statistica Univariate and multivariate distribution normality skewness and kurtosis was also checked. Values larger than 3 for skewness or larger than 10 for kurtosis were considered as indicative for non-normality.
The p statistical ificance level Casual encounters Poland set at 0. As part of measurement invariances analysis factorial analysis was performed. Modification indices were inspected to identify non-fitting items. In the second step, the population was randomly divided into equal samples using SPSS software — group 1 and group 2. To be more specific, in group 1 Monte-Carlo parallel analysis was used to extract the optimal of factors.
As the data showed univariate normality but did not meet the criteria for multivariate normal distribution, the EFA using the principal axis with Varimax rotation analysis was performed. When the new model was developed, CFA using maximum likelihood method with bootstrap for lack of multivariate normality was performed on group 2.
Similarly to the initial analysis, modification indices were evaluated to obtain the best fit indices of the new model. Based on the papers [ 21 ] it was hypothesized that:. Hypothesis four: some physical foci — breasts, waist, hips, buttocks and thigh questions Casual encounters Poland MBSRQ and BES — will be of more concern for self-consciousness during sexual activity compared to other body parts.
The basic characteristics of the investigated population with group 1 and group 2 comparison is presented in Table 1. The was no statistically ificant differences between groups. Factors for each subscale are bolded. As ly described, a Monte-Carlo analysis was performed on group 1 to establish the new model structure and then EFA was performed. The analysis revealed two-factor structure of the scale ing for The first factor BESAQ2 — nudity included questions 3, 5, 7, 10, 11, 13, 24, 25, 28 all were reverse coded in the original version. Factors loadings for each question are presented in Table 1.
After establishing factorial structure of the model CFA was performed in group 2. The analysis of modification indices revealed some degree of intercorrelation between factors. These correlations were included in the model to improve its fit Fig. Finally, in order to keep the original scale scoring the formula for calculation of BESAQ score was introduced, namely:.
Similarly, the ICC was 0. The second hypothesis was also confirmed. Negative schematic and embarrassed-schema women tended to have more anxious and avoiding body focus during sexual activity. To examine the third hypothesis correlation coefficients between sexual function CSFQ and body image were calculated. The analysis revealed a small correlation between both trait and state body image measurements. Age did not correlate with sexual function. Similarly, a multiple forward linear regression analysis was performed. All variables that were ificant in univariate analysis were included in the final model.
Older women, those in a romantic relationship, with a higher of lifetime Casual encounters Poland partners, motivated highly to look more sexually attractive, feeling more sexually attractive, and more negative schematic had better sexual function.
The hypothesis was rejected. The analysis of body parts self-consciousness with higher scores reflecting more intense self-consciousness revealed that eyes, lips, hair, cheeks and height had the highest scores Table 4. Surprisingly, face parts were the most rated. It must also be underlined that the present study has some major clinical implications. Although state body image measured with BESAQ-PL did not prove to have a major impact on sexual performance, the evaluation of body image should be incorporated in everyday clinical practice.
For that reason, it is especially important for reproductive health care providers all over the world to assess and discuss in the appropriate manner all issues related to body image in women seeking help in their offices. Finally, the study might serve as inspiration for others to validate the questionnaire and include body image evaluation in everyday clinical practice. Body image esteem has been proven to be associated with sexual performances.
Both young and older adults with low body self-consciousness reported higher sexual satisfaction and higher sexual function [ 27 ]. Those thoughts will drive the attention from the sexual pleasure during sexual acts to sexual anxiety, leading to dissatisfaction and, in some cases, sexual avoidance or sexual dysfunction. More precisely, the more a woman is concentrated on how her body parts look including genitaliathe higher is the risk of sexual concerns and lack of satisfaction [ 3132 ].
However, our study only partially confirms these observations — state body image did not predict sexual performance. There are a few possible explanations. Firstly, in the original analysis only state and trait body image, age, BMI and sexual self-schema score were included in the model. None of the other possible factors [ 16 ] were incorporated. Secondly, it might be speculated that other factors than state body image might have a greater impact on sexual performance [ 16Casual encounters Poland24 ]. Thirdly, some cultural difference cannot be excluded [ 31 ].
That needs further investigation. The of our studies, as expected, confirmed the hypothesis similarly to that in the original validation study [ 21 ]. Interestingly, body image declined with age, which might be explained by more body self-consciousness and anxiety in older individuals [ 3 ].
Surprisingly, face appeared to have a greater importance compared to the USA sample. That might be caused by cultural variances [ 16 ] and a more differentiated study sample including a non-college sample of women a difference between college individuals and older adults has been ly reported [ 11 ].
Although to adjust the scoring method to the original scale a calculation formula had to be introduced, it did not change the meaning of the scale or its ificance. As Turkish validation did not include factor analysis showing only that 4 out of 28 items had ificant factor loadings or discriminant analysis [ 15 ]; the comparison with other papers is problematic. Similar were reported for a USA sample 1. The present study also has some limitations. Firstly, we did not include LBTQ women lesbian, bisexual, transgender and queer in the study protocol; it was shown that lesbian women had lower body dissatisfaction compared to heterosexual ones [ 33 ].
Secondly, the correlation between BESAQ and personality traits was also not assessed — recent studies showed that body image is associated with conscientiousness and neuroticism [ 34 ]. However, that correlation is more likely to be related with trait than state body image. Finally, further analysis on different age groups and a more heterogenous sample should be performed. However, despite that limitation the of the study have a major clinical impact and provide a basis for further analysis.
Face as a part of the female body is the most important for self-consciousness during sexual contact.Casual encounters Poland
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Body image during sexual activity in the population of Polish adult women